2018 Feb 23. pii: S0042-6822(18)30020-5. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.01.014. [Epub ahead of print]
SARS-CoV related Betacoronavirus and diverse Alphacoronavirus members found in western old-world.


The emergence of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, triggered the discovery of a high diversity of coronaviruses in bats. Studies from Europe have shown that coronaviruses circulate in bats in France but this reflects only a fraction of the whole diversity. In the current study the diversity of coronaviruses circulating in western Europe was extensively explored. Ten alphacoronaviruses in eleven bat species belonging to the Miniopteridae, Vespertilionidae and Rhinolophidae families and, a SARS-CoV-related Betacoronavirus in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum were identified. The diversity and prevalence of bat coronaviruses presently reported from western Europe is much higher than previously described and includes a SARS-CoV sister group. This diversity demonstrates the dynamic evolution and circulation of coronaviruses in this species. That said, the identified coronaviruses were consistently associated with a particular bat species or genus, and these relationships were maintained no matter the geographic location. The observed phylogenetic grouping of coronaviruses from the same species in Europe and Asia, emphasizes the role of host/pathogen coevolution in this group.

More details here : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042682218300205?via%3Dihub

Full text : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323370121_SARS-CoV_related_Betacoronavirus_and_diverse_Alphacoronavirus_members_found_in_western_old-world



Bats; Chiroptera; Coronavirus; Diversity; Emergence; Europe; Evolution; MERS-CoV; Phylogenetics; SARS-CoV



2017 Nov 29;9(12). pii: E364. doi: 10.3390/v9120364.
Identification of Alpha and Beta Coronavirus in Wildlife Species in France: Bats, Rodents, Rabbits, and Hedgehogs.

Coronaviruses are closely monitored in the context of emerging diseases and, as illustrated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are known to cross the species barrier and eventually to move from wildlife to humans. Knowledge of the diversity of coronaviruses in wildlife is therefore essential to better understand and prevent emergence events. This study explored the presence of coronaviruses in four wild mammal orders in France: Bats, rodents, lagomorphs, and hedgehogs. Betacoronavirus and Alphacoronavirus genera were identified. The results obtained suggest the circulation of potentially evolving virus strains, with the potential to cross the species barrier.


France; bats; coronavirus; genetic diversity; hedgehogs; rodents; wild rabbits; wildlife


2017 May 25;5(21). pii: e00319-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00319-17.
First Complete Genome Sequence of a French Bovine coronavirus Strain.

We sequenced the first Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) complete genome sequence from France. This BCoV was directly sequenced from a fecal sample collected from a calf in Normandy in 2014.


Infect Genet Evol. 2016 Jun;40:186-91. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.03.006. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
Comparative molecular epidemiology of two closely related coronaviruses, bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), reveals a different evolutionary pattern.

Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle. The current study includes 13 samples from BCoVs collected in Normandy during an 11-year period (from 2003 to 2014), 16 French HCoV-OC43s, and 113 BCoVs or BCoVs-like sequence data derived from partial or complete genome sequences available on GenBank. According to a genotyping method developed previously for HCoV-OC43, BCoVs and BCoVs-like are distributed on three main sub-clusters named C1, C2, and C3. Sub-cluster C1 includes BCoVs and BCoVs-like from America and Asia. Sub-cluster C2 includes BCoVs from Europe. Sub-cluster C3 includes prototype, vaccine, or attenuated BCoV strains. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the monophyletic status of the BCoVs from France reported here for the first time. Moreover, BCoV exhibits a relative genetic stability when compared to HCoV-OC43 we previously described from the same region. The numerous recombination detected between HCoV-OC43 were much less frequent for BCoV. The analysis points thus to the influence of different evolutive constraints in these two close groups.


Bovine coronavirus; Epidemiology; Evolution; Genotyping; Human coronavirus OC43; Recombination; Respiratory infection

2016 Jan;97(1):110-20. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000338. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

A full-length genome sequence of 27,739  nt was determined for the only known European turkey coronavirus (TCoV) isolate. In general, the order, number and size of ORFs were consistent with other gammacoronaviruses. Three points of recombination were predicted, one towards the end of 1a, a second in 1b just upstream of S and a third in 3b. Phylogenetic analysis of the four regions defined by these three points supported the previous notion that European and American viruses do indeed have different evolutionary pathways. Very close relationships were revealed between the European TCoV and the European guinea fowl coronavirus in all regions except one, and both were shown to be closely related to the European infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Italy 2005. None of these regions of sequence grouped European and American TCoVs. The region of sequence containing the S gene was unique in grouping all turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses together, separating them from IBVs. Interestingly the French guinea fowl virus was more closely related to the North American viruses. These data demonstrate that European turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses share a common genetic backbone (most likely an ancestor of IBV Italy 2005) and suggest that this recombined in two separate events with different, yet related, unknown avian coronaviruses, acquiring their S-3a genes. The data also showed that the North American viruses do not share a common backbone with European turkey and guinea fowl viruses; however, they do share similar S-3a genes with guinea fowl virus.



2015 May 7;7(5):2358-77. doi: 10.3390/v7052358.
Genomic Analysis of 15 Human Coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43s) Circulating in France from 2001 to 2013 Reveals a High Intra-Specific Diversity with New Recombinant Genotypes.

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is one of five currently circulating human coronaviruses responsible for respiratory infections. Like all coronaviruses, it is characterized by its genome’s high plasticity. The objectives of the current study were to detect genetically distinct genotypes and eventually recombinant genotypes in samples collected in Lower Normandy between 2001 and 2013. To this end, we sequenced complete nsp12, S, and N genes of 15 molecular isolates of HCoV-OC43 from clinical samples and compared them to available data from the USA, Belgium, and Hong-Kong. A new cluster E was invariably detected from nsp12, S, and N data while the analysis of nsp12 and N genes revealed the existence of new F and G clusters respectively. The association of these different clusters of genes in our specimens led to the description of thirteen genetically distinct genotypes, among which eight recombinant viruses were discovered. Identification of these recombinant viruses, together with temporal analysis and tMRCA estimation, provides important information for understanding the dynamics of the evolution of these epidemic coronaviruses.


genotype, sequencing, coronavirus, phylogeny, recombination, HCoV-OC43

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Free PMC Article



One of the great challenges in the ecology of infectious diseases is to understand what drives the emergence of new pathogens including the relationship between viruses and their hosts. In the case of the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), several studies have shown coronavirus diversity in bats as well as the existence of SARS-CoV infection in apparently healthy bats, suggesting that bats may be a crucial host in the genesis of this disease. To elucidate the biogeographic origin of SARS-CoV and investigate the role that bats played in its emergence, we amplified coronavirus sequences from bat species captured throughout Thailand and assessed the phylogenetic relationships to each other and to other published coronavirus sequences. To this end, RdRp sequence of Coronavirinae was targeted by RT-PCR in non-invasive samples from bats collected in Thailand. Two new coronaviruses were detected in two bat species: one Betacoronavirus in Hipposideros larvatus and one Alphacoronavirus in Hipposiderosarmiger. Interestingly, these viruses from South-East Asia are related to those previously detected in Africa (Betacoronavirus-b) or in Europe (Alphacoronavirus & Betacoronavirus-b). These findings illuminate the origin and the evolutionary history of the SARS-CoV group found in bats by pushing forward the hypothesis of a Betacoronavirus spill-over from Hipposideridae to Rhinolophidae and then from Rhinolophidae to civets and Human. All reported Betacoronaviruses-b (SARS-CoV group) of Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae respectively cluster in two groups despite their broad geographic distribution and the sympatry of their hosts, which is in favor of an ancient and genetically independent evolution of Betacoronavirus-b clusters in these families. Moreover, despite its probable pathogenicity, we found that a Betacoronavirus-b can persistently infect a medium-sized hipposiderid bat colony. These findings illustrate the importance of the host phylogeny and the host/pathogen ecological interactions in the description and the understanding of pathogen emergence. The host’s phylogeny, biogeography and behaviour, combined with already described roles of pathogen plasticity and anthropic changes are likely to be co-factors of disease emergence. Elucidating the common ancestor of Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae is key to understanding the evolutionary history of actual betacoronaviruses and therefore to get an insight of the deep origin of SARS-CoV.


► Hipposideridae is underestimated in the study of coronaviruses. ► Hipposideridae harbor Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus in South-East Asia. ► Hipposideridae colony can host Betacoronavirus close to SARS-CoV over long period. ► BetaCoV (SARS) spill-over chain: Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae, Carnivora, Human. ► Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae coevolved with independent Betacoronavirus lineages.

Betacoronavirus, Phylogeny, Hipposideridae, SARS-CoV, Thailand, Emergence
Read More :